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Monday, August 15, 2022

Urdu ki Akhri Kitab, Ibn-e-Insha, اردو کی آخری کتاب, ابن انشاء,طنز و مزاح, Humor,

Urdu ki Akhri Kitab, Ibn-e-Insha, اردو کی آخری کتاب, ابن انشاء,طنز و مزاح, Humor,

Urdu ki Akhri Kitab” (The last book of Urdu, اردو کی آخری کتاب) is an interesting parody of "Urdu ki Pehli Kitab" (The first book of Urdu, اردو کی پہلی کتاب) by Muhammad Hussain Azad. Parody comes from the Greek word parodia which means "response song".


This method of humor in Urdu literature has been brought directly from English literature in which a word or a work is mocked by verbal impersonation or alternation of words. This book is considered a successful parody in Urdu literature because Ibn-e-Insha understands the art of parody.


"Patrus Bukhari"(پطرس بخاری) had cleaned his hands on this book of Azad before Ibn-e-Insha but he was aimed at a few early lessons, and the second is the clear difference in the approach of the two comedians. Petrus’s approach is merely entertaining, while Ibn-e-Insha targets social inequalities and injustices and aims at reform.


Urdu ki Akhri Kitab” (The last book of Urdu, اردو کی آخری کتاب)  is a collection of dailies written in the background of emergency situations of 1980 in Pakistan, although we see that the life of a newspaper is one day and journalistic prose is different from literary prose. But Ibn-e-Insha's case is the opposite, neither was he a superficial columnist that his columns would create enthusiasm for a while, but with the passing of time, they would end, and he did not allow the journalistic language to merge with the literary language. Rather moderately influenced both the general reader and the student of literature. In the 1970s, the country was suffering from political upheaval and vigorous politics. It is enviable how a sensitive artist has felt this and adopted a form of humor to deal with it. But this impression is not much. The history section of the last book of Urdu laments this.


The style of “Urdu ki Akhri Kitab” (The last book of Urdu, اردو کی آخری کتاب) is fluid and smooth. Ibn-e-Insha has tried to adopt the style of Azad and basically Ibn-e-Insha has a poetic temperament. Therefore, his prose has a deep sense of rhyming, word repetition and musicality.


Petrus started the humor with the preface, while Ibn-e-Insha did not even wait for it and has provoked laughter by giving the title (Disapproved Textbook Board) on the cover of the book.

The entire book shows the fresh spring with 101 cartoons of Najmi. These cartoons add to the interest and appeal of the book. Therefore, Khalid Ahmad is forced to say that, "The authors of the last book of Urdu are two, one is Ibn-e-Insha and the other is Najmi."


Mushtaq Ahmad Yousufi, who is himself a master of humor, while introducing him, writes,


"Innumerable beautiful but obsolete and forgotten words, his lively prose has given a new life and energy to his style and harmony in Urdu humor." It is not only new but also inimitable. "

The presentation style of the book is very good, the book has not turned a single page and a smile starts playing on the lips of the reader. It is not possible to do justice to this book by giving a few examples here because this book is full of many different and charming, sarcastic and humorous phrases. Therefore, the questions listed in the initial chapters of the book, instructive stories, rules of mathematics, description of animals, account of birds, history from the time of Ramayana and “Maha Bharat” to the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, lessons of geography, scenes of nature. Mentions, Elementary Science and Grammar have not been neglected and even Sheikh Saadi's stories have not been spared.


The most important feature of the book is its satirical narration, its satire is based on bitter facts but not bitter in it. The sweetness of the tongue has hidden its bitterness. So his sarcasm can be easily understood. Satire on the space age, satire on the industrial age, satire on the stone age, satire on the newspaper, satire on the Karachi Corporation, are some of Ibn-e-Insha's satires. Also, the author has warned at the beginning of the book that while reading this book, it should be kept in mind that this book is for adults only. That is, for mature adults and to keep it away from younger students. Otherwise, the author will not be responsible for the results.


ابنانشاءکو مت پڑھ

ورنہ تیرا بیڑا پار نہ ہوگا

اور ہم سے کوئی نتائج

کا ذمہ دار نہ ہوگا


“Do not read Ibn-e-Insha, otherwise your raft will not cross and any results from this will not be responsible for”


His warning is quickly realized when at the end of the lesson he seems to be asking questions like:

"Knowledge is great wealth, but why does one who has knowledge not have wealth and why does one who has wealth not have knowledge?"


The book begins with a prayer and the sentence of the prayer is,


"Man asks for what he does not have." With its simplicity, it also has a deep meaning and it is sad to know that we people have lost spiritual purity and fertility in addition to material things.”


The style of this book is allegorical and allegorical, each of his tactics and experience is successful to a certain extent. In which our national shortcomings are also mentioned and individual selfishness is also mentioned, it is also a story of faith in illegal means for temporary gain and the incompetence and stupidity of the rulers of this era are also included. But all this is in such a subtle and wonderful way that the reader continues to enjoy it for a long time. There is no dearth of eulogies around rulers. The title of "Deen Elahi" has been made the subject of such people who flatter around the rulers and this is a subject which has been prevalent in all times and will always be fresh in the future.


The mathematics section in the book is also very interesting. Ibn-e-Insha's fluidity of nature is visible here, from which sparks of humor erupt. But the attempt to create humor does not seem conscious. Rather, there is a mischievous smirk that smiles on the writer's lips. They have the power to bring out the extraordinary aspects of ordinary things. For example, in arithmetical rules, addition, differentiation and division rules have a sharp spear of irony.


The weakest part of the book begins with the "History of the Mughals" when Ibn-e-Insha completely satirizes emergency situations. No one can deny the fact that when these newspaper columns were written, they undoubtedly had extraordinary interest and attraction for the readers, but from a literary point of view, such writings do not have the ability to survive. And for the later comers there is no enjoyment in such works of art. For example, in this section Field Marshal Ayub Khan is called "Badshah-e-Akbar". And Nurtan are the central government ministers of that era. But today's reader needs to explain this chapter.



Ibn Insha has also narrated in “Urdu ki Akhri Kitab” (The last book of Urdu, اردو کی آخری کتاب) some stories in the style of Luqman's stories, Saadi's stories and Anwar Suhaili's stories. Since most of these stories are reminiscent of the election days of the 1970s, Ibn-e-Insha targets the greedy people who run behind election manifestos, slogans and ministries. An attempt has been made these stories to teach such people lessons in gestures


Attempts have been made to bring out the shortcomings of humans by mentioning different animals and birds. Man, who is the best of creation, does not hesitate to become an animal. For example, while mentioning the dog, he writes that

"A dog was Laila's too. People used to love it to reach Laila, they flattered it like a secretary or a peon should do."



Ibn-e-Insha has given a new style to humor through great imagination and sensitive imagination and has tried his best to do justice to every aspect of life. In prose literature, good comedians can be counted on the fingers and the prose like Ibn-e-Insha is very rare. And there are irregularities in every sphere of life for the sake of exhibition But it cannot be said that such a cheerful and laughing person is not sad himself, his heart is bitter on those social inequalities and his soul is sad, it is a different thing that he saw life from a different point of view. Examined and described. Ibn-e-Insha's writings are characterized by deep seriousness and awareness of the irregularities scattered around Urdu. He is seen everywhere as a creator who suffers from creation


According to Khalid Akhtar


"Ibn-e-Insha is a natural humorist, and the more he writes, the more his style flourishes."



Sahar Ansari says that


"Ibn-e-Insha's humor is not a manipulation of words, telling jokes, or relying on funny characters, but his humor is a creation of imagination. "





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