Al-Qanoon fi Tibb, Ibne Sina, Medicine, القانون فی الطب, ابن سینا, طب, اردو,

 Al-Qanoon fi Tibb, Ibne Sina, Medicine, القانون فی الطب, ابن سینا, طب, اردو,

The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب, Qanun-e dâr Tâb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (ابن سینا, Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025. It presents an overview of the contemporary medical knowledge of the Islamic world, which had been influenced by earlier traditions including Greco-Roman medicine (particularly Galen), Persian medicine, Chinese medicine and Indian medicine.


The Canon of Medicine remained a medical authority for centuries. It set the standards for medicine in Medieval Europe and the Islamic world and was used as a standard medical textbook through the 18th century in Europe. It is an important text in Unani medicine, a form of traditional medicine practiced in India.



The English title The Canon of Medicine is a translation of the Arabic title القانون في الطب (al-Qānūn fī aṭ-Ṭibb), with "canon" (translated in English to "law") used in the sense of "law"



The medical traditions of Galen and thereby Hippocrates, had dominated Islamic medicine from its beginnings. Avicenna sought to fit these traditions into Aristotle's natural philosophy. He began writing the Canon in Gorganj, continued in Rey and completed it in Hamadan in 1025. The result was a "clear and ordered "summa" of all the medical knowledge of Ibn Sīnā's time". It served as a more concise reference in contrast to Galen's twenty volumes of medical corpus.


Legacy and reception


A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

The Qanun was translated into Latin as Canon medicinae by Gerard of Cremona. (Confusingly, there appear to have been two men called Gerard of Cremona, both translators of Arabic texts into Latin. Ostler states that it was the later of these, also known as Gerard de Sabloneta, who translated the Qanun (and other medical works) into Latin in the 13th century.) The encyclopaedic content, systematic arrangement, and combination of Galen's medicine with Aristotle's science and philosophy helped the Canon enter European scholastic medicine. Medical scholars started to use the Canon in the 13th century, while university courses implemented the text from the 14th century onwards. The Canon's influence declined in the 16th century as a result of humanists' preference in medicine for ancient Greek and Roman authorities over Arabic authorities, although others defended Avicenna's innovations beyond the original classical texts. It fell out of favour in university syllabi, although it was still being taught as background literature as late as 1715 in Padua.


The earliest known copy of volume 5 of the Canon of Medicine (dated 1052) is held in the collection of the Aga Khan and is housed in the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The earliest printed edition of the Latin Canon appeared in 1472, but only covering book 3. Soon after, eleven complete incunables were published, followed by fourteen more Latin editions in the 16th century until 1608.

In addition to Latin, the Canon of Medicine was translated into Hebrew by Nathan ha-Meati during the 13th century, and complete translations were also made into Turkish and Persian during the 18th century.


William Osler described the Canon as "the most famous medical textbook ever written," noting that it remained "a medical bible for a longer time than any other work."





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